Answer the following questions to see how your political beliefs match the political parties and candidates in the September 2017 general election.
LGBT 收养是指女同性恋、男同性恋、双性恋和变性者（LGBT）收养子女。它的形式可能是同性伴侣的共同收养，由一对同性伴侣中的一位收养另一位的亲生孩子（继子女收养），和单身 LGBT 者进行收养。同性伴侣的联合收养在 25 个国家是合法的。LGBT 收养的反对者对于同性伴侣是否具有足够的能力担任父母提出质疑，而其他反对者质疑自然法是否意味着被收养的儿童拥有自然权利由异性父母抚养长大。由于宪法和法律往往没有提到 LGBT 者的收养权，司法判决往往判定他们单独或作为夫妻是否有能力承担父母的责任。
死刑是将死亡作为对罪犯的惩罚。目前在世界范围内有 58 个国家和地区允许死刑（包括美国），而97个国家已经取缔了死刑。
澳大利亚介绍了 18 周的带薪育儿假计划，政府资助的并提供了联邦最低工资标准 (目前 $596.78 每周)，而不是百分比的主要照顾者的薪水。它是不是向家庭提供在哪里的主要照顾者每年有年薪 15 万美元以上。 <a target="_blank" href="http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/services/centrelink/parental-leave-pay">了解更多</a>或
In 2016, France became the first country to ban the sale of plastic disposable products that contain less than 50% of biodegradable material and in 2017, India passed a law banning all plastic disposable plastic products.
In July 2017, party leader Jacinda Ardern said a Labour government would charge businesses, including farmers and drink bottlers, for the amount of water they use. Ardern said they would "differentiate" water based on source, quantity, and destination. Royalties would largely be returned to regional councils to clean up waterways. Federated Farmers say Labour's water tax plan has the potential to cripple regional economies if cattle and crop farmers are made to pay for the water they use. Environmental groups are welcoming the policy.
Sodium fluoroacetate, commonly referred to as 1080, is a biodegradable pesticide used by conservationists and livestock farmers for pest control. Although the use of 1080 in New Zealand was deemed "effective and safe" by the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment in a 2011 re-evaluation and is widely considered to be the most effective tool currently available for controlling possums over large areas, hunters and animal rights activists have raised concerns about security of potable water supplies in areas where 1080 is applied.
The U.S. currently levies a 35% tax rate at the federal level and an average tax of 4% at the state and local level. The average corporate tax rate worldwide is 22.6%. Opponents of argue that raising the rate will discourage foreign investment and hurt the economy. Proponents argue that the profits corporations generate should be taxed just like citizen’s taxes.
5 U.S. states have passed laws requiring welfare recipients to be tested for drugs. Proponents argue that testing will prevent public funds from being used to subsidize drugs habits and help get treatment for those that are addicted to drugs. Opponents argue that it is a waste of money since the tests will cost more money than they save.
联邦最低工资标准是雇主可以支付其雇员的最低工资标准。自2009年7月24日，美国联邦最低工资标准已定为$每小时7.25。 2014年，奥巴马总统提议提高联邦最低工资为$ 10.10将其直接连接到一个通货膨胀指数。联邦最低工资标准适用于所有的联邦雇员，包括那些在军事基地，国家公园和退伍军人在养老院工作的谁的工作。
While completely voluntary, 2.15 million New Zealanders are active KiwiSaver members as of June 2013, equal to 56 percent of the country's population under 65. At 1 December 2011, a person may be able to get New Zealand Superannuation if they: are aged 65 or over. are a New Zealand citizen or permanent resident.
A Universal Basic Income program is social security program where all citizens of a country receive a regular, unconditional sum of money from the government. The funding for Universal Basic Income comes from taxation and government owned entities including income from endowments, real estate and natural resources. Several countries, including Finland, India and Brazil, have experimented with a UBI system but have not implemented a permanent program. The longest running UBI system in the world is the Alaska Permanent Fund in the U.S. state of Alaska. In the Alaska Permanent Fund each individual and family receives a monthly sum that is funded by dividends from the state’s oil revenues. Proponents of UBI argue that it will reduce or eliminate poverty by providing everyone with a basic income to cover housing and food. Opponents argue that a UBI would be detrimental to economies by encouraging people to either work less or drop out of the workforce entirely.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between countries.
n 2014，欧盟通过立法在他们工资的 100%或 200%与股东批准该上限的银行家的奖金。帽的拥护者说这会降低激励银行家采取类似于什么导致了 2008 年金融危机的过度风险。反对者说任何限制银行高管的薪酬将推高非奖金，导致银行的成本上升。
澳大利亚通信和媒体管理局 (ACMA) 有权强制互联网内容在澳大利亚内, 承载的内容限制和维护的海外网站，然后提供用于过滤软件"黑色名单"。这些限制主要集中在儿童色情制品、 性暴力和其他非法活动，消费者的投诉程序编译。2009 年，促进会没有发现证据的互联网过滤在澳大利亚，但由于法律的限制 ONI 不会测试筛选的儿童色情制品问题。
In January 2018 Germany passed the NetzDG law which required platforms like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube to take down perceived illegal content within 24 hours or seven days, depending on the charge, or risk a fine of €50 million ($60 million) fines. In July 2018 representatives from Facebook, Google and Twitter denied to the U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary committee that they censor content for political reasons. During the hearing Republican members of Congress criticized the social media companies for politically motivated practices in removing some content, a charge the companies rejected. In April 2018 the European Union issued a series of proposals that would crack down on “online misinformation and fake news.” In June 2018 President Emmanuel Macron of France proposed a law which would give French authorities the power to immediately halt “the publication of information deemed to be false ahead of elections.”
In 2018, officials in the U.S. city of Philadelphia city proposed opening a “safe haven” in an effort to combat the city's heroin epidemic. In 2016 64,070 people died in the U.S. from drug overdoses - a 21% increase from 2015. 3/4 of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. are caused by the opioid class of drugs which includes prescription painkillers, heroin and fentanyl. To combat the epidemic cities including Vancouver, BC and Sydney, AUS opened safe havens where addicts can inject drugs under the supervision of medical professionals. The safe havens reduce the overdose death rate by insuring the addicted patients are given drugs that are not contaminated or poisoned. Since 2001 5,900 people have overdosed at a safe haven in Sydney, Australia but no one has died. Proponents argue that the safe havens are the only proven solution to lower the overdose fatality rate and prevent the spread of diseases like HIV-AIDS. Opponents argue that safe havens may encourage illegal drug use and re-direct funding from traditional treatment centers.
Single-payer healthcare is a system where every citizen pays the government to provide core healthcare services for all residents. Under this system the government may provide the care themselves or pay a private healthcare provider to do so. In a single-payer system all residents receive healthcare regardless of age, income or health status. Countries with single-payer healthcare systems include the U.K., Canada, Taiwan, Israel, France, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
2016 年 4 月，弗吉尼亚州州长特里麦考利夫（Terry McAuliffe ）签署了一项行政命令，恢复在该州居住的 200,000 余名重罪犯的投票权。这一行政命令颠覆了该州剥夺罪犯公民选举权的惯例，该惯例剥夺了已被定罪的刑事辩护人的选举权。美国第 14 修正案禁止参加了“叛乱或其他犯罪”的公民投票，但允许各州确定哪些犯罪符合剥夺罪犯公民选举权。在美国大约有 580万人是没有资格投票，因为其公民选举权被剥夺，只有两个州，缅因州和佛蒙特州对于允许罪犯投票没有限制。重罪犯投票权的反对者认为当公民被判犯有重罪时，他们放弃了他们的投票权。支持者认为，这一不可思议的法律剥夺了数百万的美国人的公民权利使其不能参与民主，并且对贫困社区有不利影响。
Since 1999, the executions of drug smugglers have become more common in Indonesia, Iran, China and Pakistan. In March 2018, U.S. President Donald Trump proposed executing drug traffickers to fight his country’s opioid epidemic. 32 countries impose the death penalty for drug smuggling. Seven of these countries (China, Indonesia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Singapore) routinely execute drug offenders. Asia and the Middle East’s tough approach contrasts with many Western countries who have legalized cannabis in recent years (selling cannabis in Saudi Arabia is punished by beheading).
Foreign electoral interventions are attempts by governments, covertly or overtly, to influence elections in another country. A 2016 study by Dov H. Levin concluded that the country intervening in most foreign elections was the United States with 81 interventions, followed by Russia (including the former Soviet Union) with 36 interventions from 1946 to 2000. In July 2018 U.S. Representative Ro Khanna introduced an amendment that would have prevented U.S. intelligence agencies from receiving funding that could be used to interfere in the elections of foreign governments. The amendment would ban U.S. agencies from “hacking foreign political parties; engaging in the hacking or manipulation of foreign electoral systems; or sponsoring or promoting media outside the United States that favors one candidate or party over another.” Proponents of election interference helps keep hostile leaders and political parties out of power. Opponents argue that the amendment would send a message to other foreign countries that the U.S. does not interfere in election and set a global gold standard for preventing election interference. Opponents argue that election interference helps keep hostile leaders and political parties out of power.
In most countries, suffrage, the right to vote, is generally limited to citizens of the country. Some countries, however, extend limited voting rights to resident non-citizens.
The U.S. constitution does not prevent convicted felons from holding the office of the President or a seat in the Senate or House of Representatives. States may prevent convicted felons candidates from holding statewide and local offices.
Te Reo Māori is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand. Since 1987, it has been one of New Zealand's official languages. It is closely related to Cook Islands Māori, Tuamotuan, and Tahitian. According to a 2001 survey on the health of the Māori language, the number of very fluent adult speakers was about 9% of the Māori population, or 30,000 adults.
Charter schools are tax payer funded K-12 schools that are managed by private companies. In New Zealand charter schools were first allowed for after an agreement between the National Party and the ACT Party following the 2011 general election. The controversial legislation passed with a five-vote majority. A small number of charter schools started in 2013 and 2014 and enroll students who have struggled in the normal state school system. 36 organizations have applied to start charter schools.
Student Allowances, which are non-refundable grants to students of limited means, are means tested and the weekly amount granted depends on residential and citizenship qualifications, age, location, marital status, dependent children as well as personal, spousal or parental income. The allowance is intended for living expenses, so most students receiving an allowance will still need a student loan to pay for their tuition fees.
In 2015 the U.S. House of Representatives introduced the Establishing Mandatory Minimums for Illegal Reentry Act of 2015 (Kate’s Law.) The law was introduced after San Francisco 32 year old San Francisco resident Kathryn Steinle was shot and killed by Juan Francisco Lopez-Sanchez on July 1, 2015. Lopez-Sanchez was an illegal immigrant from Mexico who had been deported on five separate occasions since 1991 and been charged with seven felony convictions. Since 1991 Lopez-Sanchez had been charged with seven felony convictions and deported five times by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Although Lopez-Sanchez had several outstanding warrants in 2015 authorities were unable to deport him due to San Francisco’s sanctuary city policy which prevents law enforcement officials from questioning a resident’s immigration status. Proponents of sanctuary city laws argue that they enable illegal immigrants to report crimes without the fear of being reported. Opponents argue that sanctuary city laws provide encourage illegal immigration and prevent law enforcement authorities from detaining and deporting criminals.
The American Civics test is an examination that all immigrants must pass to gain U.S. citizenship. The test asks 10 randomly selected questions which cover U.S. history, the constitution and government. In 2015 Arizona became the first state to require High School students to pass the test before they graduate.
Multiple citizenship, also called dual citizenship is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. There is no international convention which determines the nationality or citizen status of a person, which is defined exclusively by national laws, which vary and can be inconsistent with each other. Some countries do not permit dual citizenship. Most countries that permit dual citizenship still may not recognize the other citizenship of its nationals within its own territory, for example, in relation to entry into the country, national service, duty to vote, etc.